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Abstract


A Window to Ottoman Society of the 16th Century Fakîrî’s Risâle-i Ta’rifât
Contrary to the political history of the Ottoman Empire, there are rarely information and document about social life. Consecuently, it is difficult to say that the studies have carried out in the field at the desired level. Based on the idea that poets have not been insensitive to the society and social issues in which they live, it is possible to say that literary texts have important resource allocation about social life. It has seen that significant findings have reached as a result of the investigation of divan literature products from this point of view. In this connection, Risâle-i Ta’rifât, which is the subject of study, have contained valuable information about the mentioned field. Fakîrî, in his mesnevi named Risâle-i Ta’rifât, which he completed in 1534, described 149 characters in the social life of that period in three couplets chapter. In the work consisting of 492 couplets, there is information about the type of people from all society of life such as messenger, torment, mudarris, lieutenant, imam, rich, old, Turkish, Iranian, ases, aremmâl, barber, neyzen, kalenderî, helvacı, butcher, gypsy. The poet sometimes has a humorous or critical attitude, and sometimes uses obscene expressions. But the poet has never described these 149 kinds of people without making any contradictions and described them as an individual who came from within the society. Risâle-i Ta’rifât has an exceptional place in the tradition, reflecting the impressions of the Ottoman society in the imagination of a poet. This article has previously the subject of different studies, but the full text has not published. In addition, the shape and content of this work first have examined. Also, the translation and written text of the existing copies have compared.

Keywords
Ottoman society, social life, tarifat.



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